A series of articles explaining the mouse genetics, written by Amaira.
I'll try to simplify and shorten as much as possible, and simply lay a foundation for knowledge about the color-genetics in mice. Whoever wants to can then go on from here, on their own. I'll start from the beginning with the basics. The base is proteins.
All living things are built on protein, and carbohydrates are its fuel.
Pretty much everything in the body is based on protein; muscles, hair, nails, enzymes, hormones, antibodies, etc. Proteins are in all the cells of the body, and represents most of the cells continous life-processes.
To create the best grounds for life (for your self or in your breeding) good food is of the greatest importance.
You need good and solid building blocks (proteins), the right kind of energy for the construction workers (carbs and fats) and you also need some minor additives that are necessary for life.
Vitamins and minerals are one example of such additives. Iron, for instance, is a part of the blood, and without iron it can't pick up and transport oxygen for the life-factories of the cells.
The genetic code.
The genes, with it's DNA, is in every single cell in every single living thing, and from there they control which proteins to be built, and by that also which abilities will come with the proteins. For example; blue or brown eyes, a calm or anxious ground-temper etc.
This is what's called The Genetic Code; the genes coding (and deciding) which proteins to be built.
This way not only eyecolor, etc, can be decided, but also temper and health.
For instance: if the genes - who build enzymes, who're also proteins - are not able to produce an even flow of serotonin, who helps us maintain a good mood and withstand losses. Then our general mood will be more unstable then it would for someone with a strong and even flow of this enzyme.
The genes control our life-processes, mainly by controlling what happens inside the cells, by deciding the production and flow of the enzymes (and which enzymes) being created.
Cells die and get recreated continuously in our bodies, so the genes job isn't only to transfer abilities from parent to child, but they also work non-stop in the living body. Creating new cells and maintaining the life-supporting processes that happen in the cells.
What I'm writing is, of course, extremely simplified, to the point where it contains certain "faults", but as a whole I'm hoping it'll be easier to understand.
Translated by Pehpsii Altemark.